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nigerian defence academy journal of science and engineering (ajse)

 
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ASSESSMENT OF A GROUNDWATER QUALITY FOR DRINKING PURPOSE IN ILORIN, NIGERIA
Eletta Omodele A.A, Adeniran Jamiu A., Adewoye Latifa T. Adenle Adebobola Adesola.

ABSTRACT Groundwater is a major source of water supply in Nigeria where there is an inadequate supply of water for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This paper examines the suitability of water samples from a target hand dug well (TW) in a residential area in Ilorin, Nigeria for drinking purpose. The samples were characterized to determine physico - chemical properties over eight weeks due to the observed, oily, greenish blue water discharged from the groundwater source. Another well in the neighborhood was investigated as a control (C). Concentration of selected anions, cations and the presence of hydrocarbons were established in the contaminated well with focus on nutrients and hydrocarbons related to sewer, paint and petroleum compounds to establish the possibility of leakages from sewers, the auto repair/painting workshop and the petroleum products pipeline which are located uphill of the well. The results of physico -chemical characterization carried out on the TW showed pH:7.3 - 7.9; turbidity: 1.2 - 4.5 NTU; total hardness; 175.30 - 222.02 mg/l; TDS: 90 - 125 mg/l. Concentration of cations and anions ranged between 0.16 – 0.24 for Fe; Mn: 0.01 – 0.06; Zn: 0.18 - 0.45; NO32-: 5.95 – 12.76; SO42-: 192.1 – 235.85; Cl-: 230.63 - 283.32 all in mg/l. A Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopic analysis (GC-MS) carried out on the water samples from TW showed that, 24.83% of the peaks are within 90 – 100% quality range which confirms the compounds suggested from the installed NIST11 library are correct within minimal error limit..

CONFOUNDING HIGHER ORDER INTERACTION EFFECT OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZERS ON POTATO YIELD
Alhaji, BB,Dikko HG, and David, IJ.

ABSTRACT A 2 by 3 or (23) factorial experiment of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer trial effect on potato yield was carried out, confounded in randomized blocks of six and four plots, each fertilizer was in two levels which are; none (0) and 45kg/ha, and the third interaction (N*P*K) was confounded. The data was analyzed and from the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) table, it was observed that N, P and K had significant effect on potato yield. In the second order interaction effect, only N*P had no significant effect. The response to phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) were modified by the presence of potassium (K), that is, P*K and N*K had significant effects on potato yield.

MODELING IMPACT OF BYPASS DIODES ON PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL PERFORMANCE UNDER PARTIAL SHADING
Sabo Aliyu, Sagir Lawan, Idris A Araga, Adunola Fatai Olatunde

ABSTRACT Partial shade is known to cause significant de-rating for most photovoltaic (PV) systems. Partial shading results to greater generated output power losses and large reverse voltage. These shading can be mitigated through the use of bypass diodes across the shaded cells. This review contains discussion comments from views of authors including technical discussion, analysis and comparison. MATLAB simulation studies have been employed in studying the impact and performance of using bypass diodes on the solar cell under shading condition. Algorithms have also been designed to study the effects of non-overlapping bypass diode configuration in randomly shaded solar module and results have been compared with modules devoid of bypass diodes. Power-voltage (P-V) and Current-voltage(I-V) curves have been plotted and maximum peak power is tracked for severe to intermediate levels of shading patterns.

SUPER RUNGE-KUTTA NYSTRÖM METHOD FOR DIRECT INTEGRATION OF GENERAL THIRD ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USING EXCEL WORKSHEET
Zamurat A. Adegboye, Helen O.Edogbanya and Darius T.Chinyio

ABSTRACT Super Runge-Kutta- Nyström (SRKN) method for direct solution of general third order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is an extension of the Runge-Kutta- Nyström (RKN) for solution of second ODEs.This paper describe and implement by means of a spreadsheet the SRKN method. Numerical examples were used to illustrate its efficiency.

EFFECTS OF LEAD ON HISTOPATHOLOGY OF THE MUSCLES OF Clarias gariepinus JUVENILES
M.M. Babatunde and A. Y. Idris

ABSTRACT The acute toxicity test of lead to Clarias gariepinus juveniles in the muscles and intestine of Clarias gariepinus juveniles was investigated using Standard Methods Bioassay APHA(2000). At the end of the 96hours the Muscles were rinsed in 10% formalin and preserved for further analysis. In this study, the LC50 values of Clarias gariepinus at 96h period was determined to be 50.12mg/ L. Results obtained from this study showed that lead (Pb(NO3)2) was absorbed in the muscles of the Clarias gariepinus juveniles during the 96hrsLC50 and extensive histological changes in the muscles exposed to the various lead concentrations of100mgL-1, 75mgL-1 and 50mgL-1 was observed. The lead concentrations disturbed the homeostasis and led to physiological disorders in their functions and subsequently led to the death of the juvenile Clarias gariepinus. The muscles of Clarias gariepinus juveniles inhabiting the lead medium showed hemorrhage, hemosiderin, fatty degeneration and necrosis in connective tissue of hypodermal layer as well as degeneration, necrosis and edema in muscle fiber layer. The elimination of lead released into the environment through the discharge of lead-based ammunition and fishing tackle, lead as an anti-knock in petroleum, lead materials being used as water pipes for transport of municipal water, in order to safeguard wildlife, ecosystems, and human health usage of lead should be reconsidered.

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST HANDHELD OSCILLOSCOPE
Samuel Farayola Kolawole, D.S. Nyitamen, M.K Barau

ABSTRACT The paper presents the design and development of a portable and-held digital oscilloscope using Atmel Atmega644p Microcontroller Unit operating at 20MHz & 20MIPS on a mono chrome Graphical Liquid Crystal Display. The oscilloscope has two channels through which the controller samples the analog input signals. AC & DC signals are fed to the controller’s ADC for conversion into its digital equivalents. The sampled signals undergo processes of pre-scaling, filtration, storage, reconstruction and then displayed on the GLCD. The microcontroller is programmed using BASCOM-AVR, a BASIC programming language-based Integrated Development Environment (IDE) The Oscilloscope can display the scaling factor used in readable format in Volts/div for the vertical axis and Time/div for the horizontal axis. It can also display measured signals from the two channels simultaneously and has channels offset control and trigger mode adjusting. The handy Oscilloscope has the capability of displaying the measured signal frequency value in the range of 0-250kHz. Some signal types were measured and compared with the laboratory oscilloscope and produced an error of less than 5%. The cost of the hand-held oscilloscope was N12,410, which is less than $50, hence it is low-cost compared with commercially available digital oscilloscope.

EFFECTS OF LANDFILL LEACHATE ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF UNGUWAN DOSA, KADUNA
A. Saminu, A Isma’il, IA Chukwujama , O.B.E Salau

ABSTRACT An assessment of the groundwater quality at the Unguwan Dosa landfill in Kaduna, Nigeria was conducted to determine interactions between the landfill wastes and groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected from two locations within the landfill at a distance of 100m and 150m, and analyzed for water quality parameters and heavy metals. The results indicated that the concentrations of some metals (Cr, Fe, Cd, Mn, and Co) at ranges of 0.31 - 051, 1.0-1.20, 0.005 ,0.4 and 0.051 and other water quality parameters in some sampling locations were slightly above the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) standard limits. Lead was also detected in the groundwater samples, though at concentrations within the standard limits. Conclusively, the Unguwan Dosa landfill has impaired groundwater quality, thereby, posing environmental and human health concerns to the people living in the environs.

CONSTRUCTION OF SOME IMPLICIT LINEAR MULTI-STEP METHODS INTO RUNGE-KUTTA TYPES METHODS FOR INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS (IVP) OF FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Ademola M Badmus and Mohammed S Mohammed

ABSTRACT Two implicit Hybrid block methods at step length k=2 and 3 were derived through collocation procedures. The two derived block methods also reconstructed to an equivalent S stage Runge-Kutta type methods for the solution of y′=f(x,y). Both methods derived were implemented on the same numerical experiments but Runge-Kutta type methods (RKTM) show its superiority over its equivalent Linear Multi-step Methods of the same value of step length k

ASSESSMENT OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN POLICE TRAINING SCHOOL BARRACK STREAM, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
M.M. Babatunde and D. B.Samuel

ABSTRACT This study was aimed at investigating the status of some heavy metal loads of barrack stream Kaduna, Nigeria. Monthly changes in heavy metals such as lead, chromium, nickel and cadmium were analyzed for a period of 3 months from November 2015 – January 2016. Concentration of Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Nickel (Ni) were determined by Standard Methods by APHA (1995) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results indicate lead (0.011±0.034),chromium (0.0001±0.63), cadmium (0.077±0.017) and nickel (0.002±0.056) were within the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) and Kaduna State Environmental Protection Authority, Nigeria. KEPA standards however, sample station A shows high concentrations of Cr while sample site C indicates concentrations above maximum permissible limits for Cd and Ni spatially. Therefore, this indicates that the water might not be good for drinking but may possibly be used for irrigation, fish farming and agricultural purposes after desisting from sewage and refuse disposal into the water bodies.

 
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