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nigerian defence academy journal of science and engineering (ajse)

 
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PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY AND DIARRHOEAL PATIENTS IN ZARIA AND KADUNA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.
Dikwa, K.B.,  Galadima, M. S & Yakubu, S.E

Abstract The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections in apparently healthy and diarrhoael patients in Zaria and Kaduna. A total of 1,005 stool samples were collected and examined via the direct microscopic examination, formol-ether concentration technique and safranin-methylene blue staining technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Out of the 1,005 samples examined, 605 were from the apparently healthy people, consisting of 306 males and 299 females. While 400 were diarrhoeal patients, comprising 200 males and 200 females, all in Zaria and Kaduna. Intestinal protozoans were detected in 75 (7.5%) of the total number of persons examined, among which 31 (5.1%) were from the apparently healthy and 44(11.0%) were diarrhoeal patients. Result shows the following prevalence rate in the apparently healthy people: Entamoeba histolytica 25 (4.1%), Giardia lamblia 5 (0.8%), Entamoeba coli 1(0.2%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (0%), while prevalence rate in the diarrhoael patients were more: Giardia lamblia 21 (5.3%), Entamoeba histolytica 16(4.0%), Entamoeba coli 5 (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium parvum 2 (0.5%).The implication of the findings in relation to gender and age are discussed.

HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF SOILS IN SELECTED WASTE DUMPING SITES IN WARR/EFFURUN, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA
GODWIN E. NWAJEI

Abstract Warri/Effurun area is heavily industrialized and over populated both domestic and industrial waste are dumped in various spots. Top and depth soils from waste dumping sites were determined for some selected trace elements such as lead, mercury, chromium, arsenic, selenium and cadmium. The soils were digested in acid mixture and the metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This study was carried out monthly for the period covering July 2001 - June 2002. Metal contents in contaminated soils (E1 - E6) were higher than those of uncontaminated control soils (E7 and E8). These high levels of metals in soils from E1 - E6 were as a result of wastes dumped. Spearman rank order correlation coefficient showed that strong relationships were found for all the metals (P < 0.01) between top soils and depth soils.

(TS/DS). KINETIC AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF DYEING ACID DYES DERIVED FROM P-AMINOTOLUENESULPHONE-N-ETHYLANILIDE ON WOOL AND NYLON 6.6
M.K.Yakubu, K.A.Bello and M.M.Bukhari

Abstract Kinetics and thermodynamics of dyes derived from p-amino toluene sulphone-N-ethylanilide as diazocomponent on wool and nylon 66 substrates are hereby reported. The activation energy of diffusion decreased as the number of suphonic acid groups increased. It was also observed that dyes that exhibited azo-hydrazone tautomerism gave lower activation energies than identical dyes that did not show the same effect. Monosulphonated dyes recorded higher values of heat and entropy of dyeing than the disulphonated ones.

THE GUT FOOD COMPOSITION AND FEEDING HABITS OF SYNODONTIS CLARIAS IN RIVER KADUNA M. C. Emere Dept. of Biological Sciences Nigerian Defence Academy Kaduna Abstract The gut food composition and feeding habits of 215 specimens of Synodontis clarias in River Kaduna were investigated. They fed mainly on plant materials. Supplements of most available food materials included insects, small fish and green algae. The occurrence of detritus as one of its major diet seemed to indicate a benthic mode of life. The occurrence of fish in the diet during the cold dry months appeared to indicate some seasonality in the intake of food.

EFFECT OF THE REPLACEMENT OF MAIZE WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DUSA (LOCAL MAIZE OFFAL) IN THE DIETS OF LAYING CHICKENS
VANTSAWA PHILIP ANTHONY

Abstract The effect of the replacement of maize with dusa (local maize offal) in the diets of 378 laying hens of approximately equal weights was investigated. Proximate analysis and metabolizable energy of dusa were determined. The three hundred and seventy eight birds were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatments in which treatment one was the control and contained no dusa. Treatment two to seven were composed of rations in which graded levels of dusa replaced maize up to 100% in treatment seven. There were three replicates of 18 birds in each replicate. Dusa has 10.82% crude protein and a metabolized energy value of 2784kcal/kg. There was no significant difference (P> 0.05) observed in the average daily egg production between the treatments after 6 months of lay. Feed consumption however increased linearly as the dusa ration increased in the diets. The feed cost (N/dozen of eggs) decreased significantly (P<0.05) as the level of dusa increased. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the percentage mortality of birds, percent hen-day, percent hen-housed egg production and in the Haugh unit value. Dusa can therefore replace all the maize in the diets of laying hens without any adverse effect on egg laying performance with about 45% savings in the cost of production.

BIOACTIVE INVESTIGATION AND STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF IRON (III) AND NICOTINOHYDROXAMIC ACID COMPLEX
Aliyu A.O. & Nwabueze J.N

Abstract Complex of Fe (III) with nicotinohydroxamic acid (NHA) has been investigated by using spectrophotometric method. Fe (III) in aqueous solution revealed the sole formation of the 1:3 complexes at equilibrium. The spectra and magnetic studies of the isolated complex indicated octahedral coordination. The bonding mode proposed for the Fe (III) hydroxamate complex is mix bonding mode (N,O). The complex is biologically active against the eight (8) microorganism investigated. The ligand and its complex showed moderate activity at 50 µg/ml against the microbes while at 200 µg/ml both the ligand and its complex showed maximum activity.

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSABILITY OF NATURAL RUBBER REINFORCED WITH CARBON BLACK (N330) AND ITS BLEND WITH RAW PALM KERNEL HUSK
EGWAIKHIDE, P.A., OKIEIMEN, F.E. & OKENIYI, S.O.

Abstract The rheological, mechanical and physical characteristics of natural rubber composites filled with blends of raw palm kernel and carbon black (N330) at total filler loading of 50phr have been studied. The blends of raw kernel husk and carbon black used in this study as filler was characterized in terms of loss on ignition, surface area, moisture content and oil adsorption. Efficient vulcanization system was used. The curing characteristic of the compound mixes were determined on a Monsanto Rheometer. The physico-mechanical properties of the vulcanizates were measured as a function of volume fraction filler. The physical testing of the natural rubber vulcanizates involve the determination of tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation at break, compression set, hardness and abrasion resistance properties. The blend, containing up to 20wt% of raw palm kernel husk gave natural rubber composites with comparable physico-mechanical properties with composites obtained with carbon black (N330). Although above 20wt% filler blends of raw palm kernel husk and N330 exhibits some good vulcanizates properties, but inferior to carbon black (N330) when used alone, especially with regards to tensile strength and modulus at 100%.

QUALITATIVE PROPERTIES OF MEMBRANE ELASTIC SHELLS
GBADEYAN, J. A., OPOOLA, T. O. & OSUALA, S. C.

Abstract This paper concerns the qualitative properties of membrane shells of positive curvature. The properties are obtained by applying the theory of complex holomorphic functions developed in [7, 8]. It is shown that the zeroes of both the stress function and the displacement function are regularly distributed. These zeroes are isolated and none of these two functions vanish identically. These properties are the pre-requisites for the inverse analysis of the membrane shells.

PARAMAGNETIC AND ANTIFERROMAGNETIC SIGNATURES IN EXACT BROAD-SPECTRUM NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS
PO AKUSU & AOE ANIMALU

Abstract By developing a program in MATLAB, an exact solution of a 16x16 matrix representation of the 2-D Hubbard Hamiltonian used in describing a simplified 2x1 CuO2 plane (which are known to play a significant role in HTc-superconductivity in cuprates) is revisited. A broad-spectrum analysis of the Helmholtz Free energy, F(T), and the entropy, S(T), of High-Temperature superconductors (HTS) reveal some very interesting results which include the exhibition of a paramagnetic phase in the Repulsive Hubbard model, RHM (U>0), and an antiferromagnetic behaviour of the Attractive Hubbard model, AHM (U<0); whereas, there is a low-temperature antiferromagnetic signature in both aspects of the models.

CONTINUOUS NUMERICAL METHOD IN ANALYSIS OF AXIS-SYMMETRIC EXTRUSION PROBLEMS: NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS AND APPLICATION
C. O. Izelu - C. A. Ebiogwu - F. F. Orumwense

Abstract The CNM approach to solutions of extrusion problems has been formulated in Izelu et al [15]. The Procedure and results of numerical experiments performed, with some axis-symmetric profiled dies are reported. The results showed that the method is simple and straightforward in its formulation and implementation with the digital computer, and involves less complex mathematical details and minimal geometrical restrictions. They also showed that it is capable of providing, with dense numerical output, direct and complete solution of the metal flow problems in axis-symmetric extrusion together with full predictions of the process performance in any given set of steady-state extrusion conditions. The predicted effects of the interface friction factor and extrusion ratio on die performance are quite in agreement with predictions of other methods.

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION EMISSION FROM COMPUTER MONITORS
DS NYITAMEN

ABSTRACT The intensity of the electromagnetic fields emitted from video display unit (VDU) of computers in various directions was investigated. Measurements of the radiation emissions from the monitors were made and the data analysed. The results were then compared with the recommended exposure limits. On the average both components (magnetic and electric) of electromagnetic radiation, 50 cm away from the monitor do not exceed permissible values significantly. The emission levels from the monitors were between 1.5 – 3.2mG and 0 – 4V/m measured values for magnetic and electric fields respectively compared to the Swedish Standards Institution (SIS) values of 2mG and 10V/m at 50 cm from the centre of the screen. However, it was observed that clustered computer monitors with poor spacing arrangement (less than 1 meter apart in any direction) produced significant radiations even at 50 cm from the centre of the screen. Also, multiple electrical cable cords near the regular operator position were found to increase the measured radiation values.

POTENTIAL USES OF IMMOBILIZED CELLS OF Fusarium oxysporium IN THE BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM TEXTILE WASTEWATER
GARBA HARUNA

Abstract The effectiveness of immobilized cells of Fusarium oxysporium in the treatment of textile effluent as well as their ability to biosorp heavy metals was investigated. Textile wastewater from United Nigerian Textile Limited was seeded with F oxysporium cells in order to study their ability to reduced its pollution load before discharging into receiving water. Immobilized biomass of F oxsporium was inoculated into the textile effluent for 14 days and its efficiency in the treatment of textile wastewater was determined by the observed reductions in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), as well as the removal of heavy metals after 14 days. During the retention time, a removal efficiency of between 42% to 95% for BOD, and 9.0% to 93.3% for COD was achieved. The biosorption capacities of F oxysporium for seven heavy metals ( Co,Pb,Cd,Zn,Mn,Fe and Cr) was demonstrated. The percentage removal for heavy metals is as follows: cobalt 100%, manganese 90%, iron 36%, chromium 92%, cadmium 50% , lead 35% and zinc 81%. From these results it may be concluded that F oxysporium has some potentials in the treatment of textile wastewater especially in the removal of heavy metals.

THE EFFECT OF GRINDING METHODS ON HARD ALLOY TOOL INSERTS’ SURFACE QUALITY AND DURABILITY
S.O. YAKUBU & G.D. EVSEEV

Abstract Investigations have been done concerning the influence of grinding methods on the surface quality and durability of hard alloy tools. The experiments were conducted on a horizontal grinding machine and universal lathe machine in Moscow State University of Technology. The following methods of grinding were adopted: “Dry” grinding, Grinding with compressed air and ionized gas medium (IGM) grinding. The samples (hard alloy tool inserts) for the experiment were obtained from the following grades of hard alloys: T14K8 and T5K10. The effect of the grinding methods on the grinding component forces, micro hardness, surface quality and durability of the hard alloy inserts were found. Tests were also carried out to find out the influence of grinding methods on the hard alloy inserts’ wear-resistance and efficiency after being coated with TiN as well as the quality of the surface(s) machined with such tools. The results showed that the surface quality of the ground inserts prior to coating, their durability and efficiency after coating, depends largely on the method of grinding employed. It was also observed that, the best way of preparing the surface of hard alloy material prior to coating is by grinding with the application of IGM.

DESIGN OF A LOCAL INCUBATOR FOR CHICKEN, DUCK AND TURKEY
E. J. Ibanga & J.A. Enokela

Abstract A simple temperature control circuit that maintained the favourable temperature range of 38oC to 40oC – for ideal incubation of poultry eggs – was designed, built and tested. This simple system uses a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor as the temperature- sensing device to achieve high circuit sensitivity and also a high degree of stability of temperature of the enclosure. The circuitry could be used for application in rural environment where electricity supply is not available by the provision of a 12 V battery. It is the consideration of this factor and for the reduction of costs that leaves the control of other factors such as oxygen and carbon dioxide content, humidity and egg turning, which are necessary for optimum hatchability to be done manually.

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF SOAPS USING FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF OIL
NSI, E.W. & EKANEM, E. O.

Abstract Bar soaps were prepared using different types of oils. The oils used were palm oil, palm kernel oil, groundnut oil, olive oil and beef tallow. Quality analysis of the soap prepared was carried out and the result was compared with the standard specification for hard soap. The results indicate total fatty matter (T.F.M.) to be 68%, 64%, 54%, 60%, and 58% for palm kernel oil, palm oil, beef tallow, groundnut oil and olive oil respectively. Results of the analysis also indicate ranges of values for other properties such as total free alkali; T.F.A (0.134 – 0.171)%, free caustic alkali, FCA, (0.126 – 0.165)%, free carbonate alkali, F.Ca.A. (0.003 – 0.009)%, lather volume (150 – 440) cm3, time for foam to subside (11.1 – 23.20) hours. These results depict that the quality of soap prepared from these oils fall within the standard specifications. However, the soap prepared from palm kernel oil had overall best quality.
 
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